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Title: Gene Modification In Organigms
Authors: Oluronbi, Olubunmi Ifeolu
Honchar, Oleksii
Гончарь, Алексей Владимирович
Гончарь, Олексій Володимирович
Issue Date: 12-Nov-2015
Citation: Oluronbi O. I. Gene Modification In Organigms / O. I. Oluronbi // Diagnostical methods in internal medicine and their ethical aspects : 5th Scientific Students’ Conference, Kharkiv, 12th of November 2015 : abstract book. – Kharkiv : KhNMU, 2015. – Р. 46–47.
Abstract: Genetic engineering (modification), is the set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by first isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence, or by synthesizing the DNA, and then inserting this construct into the host organism. Genes may be "knocked out" using a nuclease. Gene targeting is also used to introduce point mutations. An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be a genetically modified organism (GMO). The first GMOs were bacteria generated in 1973 and GM mice in 1974. Advantages. Genetic modification includes gene therapy – replacing defective genes with effective ones. This can occur in somatic or germline tissue. Somatic gene therapy has been studied in clinical research in several diseases, including X-linked SCID, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and Parkinson's disease. As an example, Glybera (Alipogene tiparvovec) is a gene therapy treatment that compensates for lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LPLD), which can cause severe pancreatitis. There are also infectious diseases that can be treated with the use of genetic engineering (by implanting the genes that are associated with antigen and antiviral proteins). The most desirable traits of certain organisms can be taken and integrated into other organism’s DNA. Genetic engineering has the ability to increase the genetic diversity as well as produce variant alleles that can be implanted to other species. It is also possible to change the heredity of the wheat plants and grow insulin. Disadvantages. Existence of hereditarily modified genes can have an irreversible effects and associated consequences. Genetic engineering can hinder the moral issues particularly in religion, manipulation of genetic sequence to obtain the main purpose of human reproductive organs that are intended for health purposes. It is a tricky and risky process, and then there's the fear of the eradication of the present human species due to presence of these modified species Cloning. The term clone, invented by J.B.S Haldane, is derived from the greek word klōn, "twig", the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig. Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human. The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. The possibility of human cloning has raised controversies. Two common types of theoretical human cloning are: therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning involves cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world. Two common methods of therapeutic cloning that are being researched are somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and stem cell induction. Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific tissues. Advantages. Cloning can provide answers to many developmental diseases and defects, discovery of signal pathways by studying human embryonic stem cells, presence of evidence toward the hypothesis that developmental pathways are conserved throughout species. Cells created by SCNT are useful for research into the causes of disease, and as model systems used in drug discovery. They can also be used in stem cell therapy, or to create organs to be used in transplantation, known as regenerative medicine in cases where organs are not available. Personally, I support therapeutic-regenerative medicine in cases where organs are not available. But the question i have about reproductive cloning is: "What is the guarantee that cloned subjects can be controlled?"
Appears in Collections:Наукові роботи молодих вчених. Кафедра пропедевтики внутрішньої медицини № 1, основ біоетики та біобезпеки

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